Lo storico Ferdinando Ughelli , ipotizza l'origine di questa famiglia dai Cadolingi , risalendo nella storia familiare fino alla persona del conte Cadolo X secolo . Il lavoro dell'Ughelli venne commissionato da Lorenzo di Marsciano. Pietro in Sigillo e di S. Croce, la montagna di Carnaiola , ed il castello di Parrano. Il 15 aprile Nardo con i fratelli e con lo zio Bernardino di Raniero vendono il castello di Marsciano al comune di Perugia per libre, pur mantenendo il titolo di conti di Marsciano, fin ai tempi moderni, oltre ad alcuni possedimenti.
Nerio di Bulgaruccio , una volta venduto il castello di Marsciano , nel chiede permesso al Vescovo di Orvieto di costruire vicino a Montegiove un oratorio, ove poter far celebrare la messa. Il permesso viene accordato e viene quindi costruita una chiesa che ora si chiama La Scarzuola.
La leggenda vuole che qui si fosse fermato San Francesco e che con una frasca di una pianta palustre, la scarza , avesse costruito una capanna per dimorarvi. La Scarzuola da semplice chiesa diviene poi convento, mantenendo il patronato dei Conti di Marsciano per molti secoli, e la sepoltura degli stessi discendenti della famiglia fino al XIX secolo . Nel Nerio, dopo la morte della moglie, si fa frate del Terzo Ordine francescano , e vive con abito di penitenza nella propria casa. Molto stimato dal Duca Piero, fratello del Re di Napoli, che transitava in Toscana in aiuto dei Guelfi contro i pisani, effettua per questo sovrano una ambasciata presso Orvieto per avere aiuto in denaro e soldati.
Bulgaruccio, raccolti i combattenti necessari, parte per la Toscana , ove partecipa alla Battaglia di Montecatini , rimanendo prigioniero del Capitano ghibellino Uguccione della Faggiola. Una volta portato prigioniero a Pisa interviene il comune di Perugia che con una ambasciata chiede ad Orvieto uno scambio di prigionieri. Il comune orvietano acconsente, ma mentre si tratta lo scambio Bulgaruccio muore in Pisa nel mese di settembre, incarcerato nella Torre della fame , anche se con pareri discorsi che sostengono invece che egli sia morto nella casa dei suoi familiari.
Nel Tiberuccio di Lamberto si trova con altri Marsciani con un esercito schierato contro il castello di Campiglia , la cosa si conclude tre anni dopo quando Tiberuccio viene incluso nell'accordo di tregua stipulata tra le parti. Nel Bulgaro di Tiberuccio conclude una transazione con il comune di Orvieto , che lo obbliga a pagare fiorini, e a lasciare in ostaggio il fratello Ugolino fino al pagamento della somma dovuta. Nel Ugolino riesce a evadere dalla prigione, cosa che provoca l'irritazione del Comune che organizza un esercito contro Bulgaro per distruggere Castel Brandetto a la Badia d'Acqua Alta, ora Castel di Fiori , suoi possedimenti.
I due fratelli sono assaliti e poi banditi dal territorio d' Orvieto. Bulgaro si decide quindi a pagare il debito contratto, ed il bando viene consequenzialmente revocato. Una volta riappacificatosi con il comune di Orvieto diviene, nel per questo comune, Connestabile della Cavalleria. Sempre nel Bandino di Nerio di Nardo sposa Fiandina Monaldeschi ed acquista Civitella della Montagna odierna Civitella dei Conti dagli eredi di Leoncello di Fiordivoglia, antichi signori di quel castello. Fin dal Manno si schiera fedelmente dalla parte dei Muffati con i quali nel prende a forza i castelli di Monteleone e Montegabbione , tenuti fin al , e poi restituiti ad Orvieto in occasione della venuta del cardinale Giovanni Maria Vitelleschi.
Nel Manno stesso regala il castello di Civitella dei Conti al famoso capitano perugino Ceccolino Michelotti , con un gesto che l'Ughelli definisce "d'ostentazione". Guerriero di Pier Giovanni milita per molti anni col Gattamelata al servizio dei veneziani. Mehus, Bologna ; ed. We first see C. They continued to share, however, similar social and political views, views that tended to elitism, support of the Guelfs, and of the Florentine oligarchy.
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When Firenze reopened its studium in , C. The payments continued only until —70, but it is possible he continued to teach for free until , the year of his exile. He had illustrious colleagues in Firenze including the Perugian Baldo degli Ubaldi, who was such a good friend that C.
On the civil-law side he had only the basics: Azzone, Roffredo, Accursio, Bartolo, and of Corpus iuris civilis only the Institutes. After the revolt of the Ciompi of , from which he was lucky to escape, he was declared a rebel, sentenced to death, and the confiscation of his property, and ultimately to exile in Barcelona. Permission to kill him was given to anyone who found him elsewhere. But the following year, despite the warnings sent by the Florentine government, he was called to lecture on the Decretals at Padova.
Following that he was in Roma, to which the pope had returned from Avignon. Urban VI made him a senator, and C. It seems that C. In January , a few months before his death of natural causes, there was an attempt to poison him. The three short unpublished works called Disputationes in studio paduano a quaestio and two repetitiones may be connected with his stay in Padova. The repetitio known as Tractatus de hospitalitate t.
In it C. The De canonico portione et de quarta t. Spagnesi describes them as the first printed consilia. If we define the genre broadly, that is true. But unlike later consilia , these seem to be mostly arguments that had been, or should be, used in court. The number of the allegations went from of which some were canceled to Three years later, Quintiliano Mandosi is said to have purged the text of defects and certainly accompanied each of them with extensive commentary and updates Ziletti ed. Italian Edit says that he was inscribed in the Spanish College at Bologna from to , and that he lectured in the Studio bolognese in and lists his repetitio on C.
That he was the author of a glossed version of the Leyes de Toro , published in Medina del Campo in but there may be earlier versions seems clear. That he was also the author of De duello t. Further one would not want to go without consulting the paper version of DBE. The authority file of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek gives floruit dates of X , says that C. Padova and in Venezia, and says that he was a jurist, a translator, and a protonotary apostolic. It also gives the first printings of ten works that are attributed to him, with first publication dates ranging from to The floruit dates come from the Archivio biografico italiano, which is no better than the secondary sources that it cites, some of which are of dubious quality.
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We have yet to examine the printed copy of G. That C. In , , and again in , he published in Venezia three tracts against specific doctrines in the Lutheran catechism. In all three, he identifies himself as a lawyer, and argues in the dedicatory epistle of one that he is expounding the law of God. Two other controversial works about what we would call theology followed in and Commentarium iuris Camilli Cautii. The Tractatus de pensionibus episcopalibus t.
Ziletti also published it separately at approximately the same time as TUI , with the title Camilli Cavtii i. It does not seem to have been published after that. Santoncini, DGI 1. Becker, DBI 22 — For sometime it was thought that C. The Christian name is rare; the surname so rare as to be almost non-existent. Be that as it may be, C. The work itself, the only work that we have found ascribed to him, is a commentary on the decree of 5 Lateran on the same topic.
Galligani, in DGI, M. Napoli, in DBI 25 . He is also known as Andrea da Pisa Andreas Pisanus. Library cataloguers have followed suit. The authority file of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek settles on Andreas Pisanus, but reports 19 variants. Fortunately, there is not much to catalogue. Only one freestanding work of his is in print, the De gerundiis t. Rossi, in DGI 1. Arabeyre, in DHJF, s. Le Cirier, Jean.
The remainder of his career was spent as a parlementaire of Paris. His De iure primogeniturae vel majoricatus t. A Roman jurist, whose monograph on penalties is the subject of a commentary by Joannes Rogeraius Trochaeus t. Not in DBI. Coleman and C. Donahue, in MEMJ with references and a bibliography is sumarized here: The old noble Clementini family originated in Rimini and established branches in Amelia in and Orvieto in both prov. Terni, ITA. In the second half he seems to have held several important ecclesiastical positions in and around Amelia. An Ascanio Clementini is said to have been prior of San Valentino de Arcis, a former Benedectine abbey not far from Amelia, until He served as canon penitentiary in Amelia and was appointed vicar general there by Mazzatinti, 4.
Finally, an Ascanio Clementini is listed as uditore del nunzio in Venice in Although geographically distant from Amelia, this diplomatic position is not impossible for C. His only known work, the Tractatus de patria potestate , was published in Venezia in reprints in Frankfurt , TUI , and Helmstadt The work suggests that C.
We have found an edition of this item: Monteferrato The corporate group that rendered this consilium would not seem to be ancestor of any of the modern residential colleges of the university of Pavia, the oldest of which date to later in the 16th century. Whether it is the law faculty of the studium at Pavia in its corporate capacity or the college of doctors of law at Pavia requires more exploration. The latter seems more likely. A Latin edition of the Compendiaria t.
That printing seems to have included forms in French, which TUI does not. Valeschi, in DGI 1. Kohl, DBI 28 —5. He also taught there, principally, canon law.
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A rather large number of 16th-century imprints bear the name of a Joannes Copus in one capacity or another. That the eight items in TUI that deal with the topic De fructibus are all derived from a work published in Paris in and reprinted there in seems clear. He also is the author of a tract De restitutis , published in Paris in Both works are dedicated to Francis I. NBG t. That Jean himself was a sympathizer with Calvin, perhaps a follower, seems likely, but disentangling his career and his works before and after X is something that we did not undertake.
The ODNB by subscription has an article on Michel Cop, basically to affirm that he had nothing to do with England other than the fact that two of his books were translated from French and published in England. It mentions that Guillaume had three sons but says nothing of Jean.
His production, however, is much larger than that, and has been the subject of volume treatment by A. London Fell. Pedrazza Gorlero, in DGI 1. Pederazza Gorlero, in DGI 1. Senior and Junior were, respectively, uncle and nephew. The former taught the latter. After teaching briefly at Mantova, he returned to teach at Pavia. His support for the French had led to his imprisonement and confiscation of his goods after the battle of Pavia In he moved to Padova, following his brother Matteo, who was a distinguished professor of medicine.
The emoulments of his position at Padova allowed him to recover his fortunes. Commentaries of his on both the Digest and the Code and, particularly, on the feudal law t. Mentioned in M. Corti, Francesco jr. There is, so far as we are aware, less written about C. Consilia that are said to be by C. We have seen references to his consilia in the four-volume collection of consilia by various authors published in Frankfurt in He was also a counselor to the marquis of Monferrato and member of the senate of Milano.
His De consuetudine t. He also wrote on the ius patronatus. Not in Italian edit The first edition of the De nobilitate t. That is probably enough, pending further investigation, to assign a place of origin and a floruit date to him. The De nobilitate was reprinted in Tractatus , and not again, so far as we can tell, after Lucchesi, in DGI 2. He taught some civil but mostly canon law at Pavia for most of his life.
He is best known for his treatise De ludo t. There was pastor of a Protestant Paris church in the midth century of that name, who was deprived for heretical to Protestants views R. Kingdon, Geneva and the Consolidation of the French Protestant Movement, — [Paris ] 88 , but that almost certainly not our Costanus and just compounds the puzzle. It concludes that he was a parlementaire of Toulouse, probably a professor at the university, that he was alive and writing between and , that he was probably still alive in , when the De sponsalibus t.
Poullet, in Biographie nationale de Belgique, s. De Coster, Guillaume de —19 online pdf ; K. The attribution that is sometimes made of the De usuris to Willem de Bondt, the Dutch jurist of the early 17th century is impossible; he was born in From he was professor of canon law at Leuven, a position that he held until his death. The De usuris is a quodlibet that he gave at Leuven in , first published in? Paris s. Not in DHJF. Cotereau, Claude. The NBG t. He seems to have ended his ecclesiastical career as a canon of Notre-Dame de Paris.
He had a command of Latin and Greek, and knew some Hebrew. His main works are the Tractatus de iure et privilegiis militum t. French cataloguers attribute the Schedulare magistratuum civilium t. That edition does not seem to be available online. Catalogue Collectif de France. The subtitle De tribuno celerum, et principe Palatii Franciae t. The subtitle on the edition of Paris would seem to be sive Liber magistatuum gallicorum ad magistratus romananorum collatitius.
This is certainly the kind of thing that Claude Cotereau could have done. We do not know whether Claude was a priest at this time, but he certainly became one. Cotta was a practicing lawyer and a private scholar. Perhaps the best-known Spanish jurist of the sixteenth century who wrote principally about private law. He is known as the Spanish Bartolus. He was, however, influenced by the thought of the neo-scholastics in a way that would have been impossible for Bartolus. Sinisi, in DGI 1.
After having taught civil law at Pavia, C. He is best known for his Institutiones iuris canonci , first published in Pavia in He died with only one of his three planned volumes of an enlarged edition of the Institutiones published. Winkel, in DHJF — The fact that his scholarship is so good it can be used today makes it difficult to recover why it was so important in its time.
For the item in TUI , see below under Ulpian. Krynen, in DHJF. Those lectures seem to have resulted in commentaries on their respective books. The one on the Digest is known to be in six manuscripts, that on the Code also in six manuscripts and a printing of , which has been reprinted in our times Opera iurdica rariora, 8. That on C. After he entered into an ecclesiastical career. He was named bishop of Bazas in , bishop of Comminges in He was at the assembly of Vincennes in and at the meeting with the king that dealt with the question of the beatific vision in Mentioned in O.
Condorelli, DGI s. Bartolomeo da Brescia, in O. Bernardo da Parma, in M. Bertram, DGI s. Goffredo da Tani. Lange, —2. An important canonist of the early 13th century, who is well covered in Pennington and Lange. He practiced law in Brugge, and held various magistracies, ultimately becoming a member of the council of finance of the Hapsburg Netherlands, a position that he held from — He is best known for his Praxis rerum criminalium , a work that was translated into Dutch, French, and German and was influential in developing European criminal practice.
He also wrote a complementary Praxis rerum civlium. Modern scholarship has not been kind to D. He claimed a doctorate in law that he never seems to have earned, and both Praxis works turn out to have been largely plagiarized from unpublished works by one Filips Wielant. The Patrocinium pupillorum, minorum et prodigum t. Deschamps, in DHJF — He is, however, an important figure in the development of the humanist juristic method.
Of the many strands of humanistic juristic thought, D. Guillelmus Durandus. Roumy, in DHJF. Pennington, in MEMJ s. Guillelmus Durantis junior.
Biographical details about D. The first edition of his De arte testandi was published in Roma in and is dedicated to Girolomo cardinal Ghinucci, who died in The work was a considerable publishing success. The man himself seems to have disappeared. The Regula decimarum was first printed in Paris p. He had been bishop of Ciudad Rodrigo prov. Salamanca ESP from Corse-du-Sud in Those facts allow us to date the Regula decimarum X In addition to the Regula decimarum , E.
See Pennington for the details. It was not impossible for someone in the late 14th century to obtain a university degree at the age of 45, but it was quite unusual. Centenarians were, moreover, rare indeed in the 15th century. Arabeyre, in DHJF — s. The duke rewarded him, but so did the emperor.
His legal works all seem to date from the s. He became auditor of the of the chambre des comptes of the duke in , and was apparently succeeded by his brother, Nicolas, in The Latin name assigned to the author of De privilegiis doctorum t. Most library cataloguers leave the name in Latin. We would be inclined to date his birth almost twenty years later on the basis of what seems to be student works from the s. That E. The first edition of the De privilegiis doctorum , which gives his surname in French, was published there in that year. It is dedicated to Gabriel Huvot in his capacity as conservator of the privileges of the university, a position that Huvot held in that year, and is dated at Caen 15 Aug.
Full catalogue description in L. More about his work for the university of Caen may be found in A. Italian edit He is described as a canon and operarius of Segovia in , when the pope made him bishop of Viesti now Vieste, prov. Foggia, ITA , a position that he resigned in , when the pope collated him to deanship of Valencia.
In , the pope made him bishop of Orihuela prov. Alicante, ESP , a position that he held until his death. The De adoratione pedum Romani pontificis t. The work was reprinted twice in Roma in , in one of which reprints E. It was reprinted in Venezia in as part of the three-volume collection of material designed for the use of the Confraternity of the Holy Rosary.
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His De potestate coactiua quam Romanus pontifex exercet in negotia saecularia was published twice in Roma in , one printing of which describes him as bishop of Viesti, the other as a doctor of theology and canon law and the operarius of Segovia a position that he seems to have retained when he was made bishop of Viesti [Eubel]. His De luctu minuendo collectana ad Ludouicum de Torres vtriusq. In edition of Valencia , he is described simply as bishop of Viesti; in the the Trento edition, he is described as bishop of Viesti and dean of Valencia.
The history of these publications may be enough to suggest that E. Donahue in MEMJ , summarized here from a longer account with full bibiographical references. Zaragosa, ESP where his family possessed a fief. It is unclear precisely when or where E. Earlier literature that tries to make him a professor at Valencia [ESP] is simply mistaken. For seven years — E. He obtained the position of juge-mage of that city in , but it is unclear how often and for how long he functioned in that position.
Intellectually, E. He is like the latter in his willingness to augment the authority of contemporary jurists with abundant references to the ancients — from Plato and Aristotle to Cicero and Thomas Aquinas. He departs, however, from both schools in his broad focus on natural law and the law of nations, in contrast to the narrower historical focus of the humanists or the traditionalism of the scholastics.
His printed works consist of two treatises: De aerario fiscoque 1st ed. We hesitate describe this jurist at all. Little is known about him, and much that has been said about him seems to have little support. That he was already dead in when the first edition of Tractatus reservationum papalium ac legatorum t. Magliano Sabina prov. Rieti was then, and is now, a relatively small town, and not known as a legal center.
The authority file of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, however, says that he was born in Lecce prov. Italian edit16 says the same. That statement goes a long way back but not, so far as we can tell, back far enough to be reliable. The first reference that we have found to F. He says that the Magliano is the modern Magliano in Toscana prov. It is unclear whether Toppi thought that there were two men named Enea Falconi.
What is clear is that he got the reference to Gessner wrong. His only reference is to Gessner this time p. He may have had independent evidence that F. If so, he does not cite it. He may have studied at Padova, but of this we certainly cannot be sure. That F. Belloni, Professor giuristi a Padova nel secolo XV Ius commune Sonderhefte 28; Frankfurt is not dispositive; she does not purport to list everyone who studied law at Padova in the 15th century. It is, however, cause to doubt that F.
In addition to the De reservationibus , F. That probably means that F. We, so far, have not been able to tie him down tighter than that. No dates beyond the 16th century are given. Semeraro, in DGI 1. Biographical details about F. He was probably a practicing lawyer in Brescia and a private scholar with theoretical interests. In addition to his De interpretatione legum t. Muther, in ADB 6. Legnani Annichini, DGI 1. Known more as a diplomat for Francis I and a literary humanist, F.
Maffei, in DGI. Although he studied both canon and civil law at Padova, F. Rather, he practiced the profession of a notary in Ravenna from to From —2, he was in the service of the pope. In the latter year, he took up the first of a series of judicial and governmental positions in the Regno, ending his life as governor of Capitanata and Molise. He wrote a number of legal works and twenty-two Consilia de duello. His writings display a wide range of learning and are not in the style typical of juristic writing of the period.
His range in topics of pubic law was wide. Collections of his works were published after his death in , , and From these were drawn the three tracts that appear in TUI It was published again in Venezia in , and after its publication TUI t. Of the author we have yet found nothing except that he says that he was engaged in tax collection for the military in in Piacenza and Parma. Humanist and practicing lawyer, F. In his youth, he translated extracts from Galen and from the commentaries of John Chrysostom on the letters of St Paul from Greek into Latin.
In addition to the two standard biographies cited above, a nice sense of the man can be obtained from German Wikipedia. Cazals, in DHJF — He did not receive a chair, however, until He plunged himself into the life of university, was saved from prison on suspicion of Protestant leanings by the intervention of the king, but retired from the university. His early works are strongly influenced by the humanists. He wrote imaginary dialogues between jurists of antiquity and contemporary jurists.
His more mundane legal works, such as his De mora t. He studied with Melancthon in his home town and then studied law at various times at Padua and Bourges, dabbled in mathematics in Spain, and finally returned to Bourges to take his doctorate under Doneau. He succeeded Oldendorp as professor at Marburg, Doneau as professor at Heidelberg, practiced law in Worms, and ended his life as professor at Helmstedt.
We have not found any of the editions on which he is said to have worked online, so we rely here on the fullest of the descriptions that we have been able to find in WorldCat, supported, as we discovered after we had written it, by a recently published article about him: R. Vincent Lyon , he is said to have contributed a digest. He made some contribution not specified in the catalogue, probably the index to the edition that the heirs of S.
He wrote a poem to accompany the edition of Aulus Gellius that the heirs of S. Vincent published in In Tractatus and TUI t. The work itself is not particularly legal, an attempt to list all the religious orders and types of committed religious life, from the beginnings of Christianity to his day. There can be little doubt that he was active between and Whether he was still alive and active in is a matter of more doubt, but it is certainly possible.
Bukowska Gorgoni, DBI 50 More a canonist than a civilian, F. What seems to be F. That there was a doctor utriusque in Arezzo named Franciscus Joannes de Acceptantibus, who died c. Cohn, The Cult of Rembrance and the Black Death: Six Renaissance Cities in Central Italy Baltimore , who describes the images that he ordered at the time of the plague for one church, and that were planned for his tomb in another church, in Arezzo. Arabeyre, in DHJF — Arabeyre has attempted to disentangle the biographies of F. Both were noble; both held central positions in the government during the tumultuous years of the religious wars.
One of them became premier president of the parlement of Paris in , but it is not sure which, because the death dates of both of them are confused. Alessandria in the Piedmont region of Italy. Padovani, in DGI 1. After a brief period of teaching canon law at Bologna, G. In , he was named bishop of Faenza but died on his way there. His De veritate ac excellentia legalis scientiae libellus t. His De officio atque auctoritate legati de latere t.
His Tractatus permutationum t.
It may have appeared earlier; the topic was a popular one, and not all the collections of treatises on the topic are fully analyzed. His De modo disputandi ac ratiocinandi in jure does not appear in TUI although it does appear in Tractatus , but is listed at the end of works in t. The De expensis et meliorationibus t. Madrid] in It enjoyed a large printing success, being reprinted many times and well into the 17th century. We have found no copy of the first edition online, but the edition of Antwerpen of online seems to contain the original dedicatory epistle to the bishop of Patti [prov.
Messina, Sicilia], the president of senate of all Spain roughly equivalent to the parlement of Paris. We have no reason to doubt any of this, nor do we have any particular reason to doubt what G. The form of the name, places, and dates are taken from DBE. He is described as a canon of Toledo, a cleric of Burgos diocese, once as a doctor in untroque and once as a doctor decretorum.
Cerchiari, Capellani papae et apostolicae sedis auditores causarum sacri palatii apostolici seu sacra Romana Rota ab origine ad diem usque 20 septembris In August of , he was made bishop of Oviedo. His successor was appointed in May of , by which time G. His three works in TUI , were all published, so far as we can tell, for the first time in Roma: De cardinalium excellentia et dignitate t. The German national authority file makes no attempt to convert his name into the vernacular and leaves the second element of his name in what may be thought of as an ablative plural: Garonis, Johannes de.
The heading of what seems to be the first printing Titulus Co[m]prehensoriu[m] feudale d[omi]ni Jo. See further about the contents of the ca. Compare Tractatus , 6. We have so far found nothing more about him. He may have died young. That seems to conflict with toponym which he is given in TUI Auximatis normally suggests Ancona, but Osimo is known as Vetus Auximum. Gaspar de Perusio. Italian edit16 notes that G. All of this seems to correct, except the date of birth, which is rather badly wrong.
Biblioteca latina mediae et infimae aetatis Hamburg 3. Eubel notes that he was appointed by Martin V as bishop of Foligno prov. Perugia in when he was abbot of S. Petri de Perusio O. The appointment to Frigento followed in when he is listed as abbot of S. Joannis Eremi Montissterilis and a doctor decretorum , and he held that position until his death in The Tractatus de reservationibus beneficiorum t Francesco Calasso, writing about Bartolus de Saxoferrato in DBI 6  , says that an ordo iudiciarius , sometimes attributed to Bartolus, is also sometimes attributed to one Iacopo Gentili da Perugia.
A website that purports to list all the professors who ever taught civil law at Perugia lists a Lorenzo di Iacopo Gentili as having taught there from —? More work on this author is clearly called for. The openly gay Vendola is running in the primaries to choose the centre-left coalition's candidate to be premier at next year's national elections, along with Pier Luigi Bersani, the leader of the main centre-left Democratic Party PD. Up to now I've been held back". Vendola, 54, had said he would quit politics if he were convicted.
He contrasted his position with that of Silvio Berlusconi, who said at the weekend that he had changed his mind about leaving front-line politics - while insisting he would not run for a fourth term as Italian premier - after being convicted of fraud last week. His acquittal provided some relief for Italy's political class after a series of big corruption scandals and it was welcomed by figures from all sides of the country's party spectrum. Lea Cosentino, the former head of the health board in Bari whom Vendola fired in after she was placed under house arrest during a graft investigation, was also acquitted of abuse of office.
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