Part 3 proposition The Great Philosophers. The Oxford Companion to the Mind. Philosophy of Right. Macmillan, London. Table Talk. The Grolier Society. Vol The World as Will and Idea. Vol 1. Routledge and Kegan Paul. NY p. Man and Society. Integrity and Conscience. Locke: A Biography. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Dover Publications. Leviathan Molesworth W ed J Bohn. London, Pt 2. Ch 29 p. Enquiry Concerning Political Justice. Codell Carter K ed , Clarendon Press. The Theory of Moral Sentiments. Ch VI.
The Philosophy of Josiah Royce. Thomas Y Crowell Co. Parenting For Everyone. Retrieved 23 October Crises of the Republic. Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich. University of Toronto Press. The Life of the Mind. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York. Bibcode : Natur. London The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. The Free Press. Principia Ethica. Obligations: Essays on Disobedience, War and Citizenship. Clarion-Simon and Schuster. Life's Dominion. Harper Collins, London Buddhism: Its Essence and development.
Harper Torchbooks. Atlantic Books. Modern Philosophy: An Introduction and Survey. Regarding the Pain of Others. Hamish Hamilton, London. Penguin Books, London. Also available here and here. Retrieved 30 October The Unconscious Civilisation. Massey Lectures Series. Anansi Pres, Toronto. The Theory of Morality. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford University Press, New York. Totality and Infinity: An Essay on Exteriority. Conscience in the English Common Law Tradition. Conscience Voting. Veritas Pub.
Morley, W. Retrieved 22 October A Theory of Justice. American Political Science Review. Army deserter arrested at Border" opposed Iraq war. New York Review of Books. Retrieved 18 October Plowing My Own Furrow. Syracuse University Press. The Life and Mind of John Dewey. Southern Illinois University Press. Einstein: His Life and Universe. Simon and Schuster.
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Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. Abacus London. The Way. Shambhala, Boston. ABC Books. London, Routledge. Retrieved 18 September San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 4 December Memo For a Saner World. Bob Brown: Gentle Revolutionary. Physicians and the Peace Movement. Frank Cass, London. Moruroa, Mon Amour. Penguin Books Australia, Ringwood, Vic.
The Evolution of Cooperation. Martinus Nijhoff. International and Comparative Law Quarterly. One World: The Ethics of Globalisation. Text Publishing. Collins, London. Seven Stories Press. The Perfectibility of Man. Duckworth, London. Interview with Oscar Arias Sanchez". Harvard International Review. Speaker says". Fri, 21 March Press Release. Retrieved 13 October The Guardian. Retrieved 27 November Sydney p. Faber and Faber London. The Hilton Fiasco. SMH 12 February , p. Archived from the original on 4 November Retrieved 9 July Soviets close to using A-bomb in crisis forum told.
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The Sunday Times. Children Overboard. Two Women, Two Stories. WW ; August: pp. Archived from the original PDF on 21 May Retrieved 26 July CS1 maint: Archived copy as title link Retrieved 26 July Marie Colvin. The Sun 23 February Retrieved 24 December Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay. Cohen JM trans. Yuasa N trans. Narrow Road to the Deep North. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth. Macmillan and Co. A Discovery of Australia: Boyer Lectures. Australian Broadcasting Commission, Sydney. Five Metaphysical Poets. Medicine and Literature pp. Selected Stories J Coulson, trans. Unwin Books. Hermann Hesse: Pilgrim of Crisis.
Jonathan Cape, London Thames and Hudson, London. Orwell: The Authorised Biography. Heinemann, London. It is also critical to remember that you can always expel them if you feel your boundaries, integrity or autonomy are being violated or if you become aware of them doing that to another person. The path of Kundalini requires that one be deeply informed about what this path requires. To help people become better informed and to give people a source of solid, grounded practices from the ancient Kundalini yoga tradition, I worked with Sounds True to produce a 7.
Sounds True asked me to take the material from the audio program and add even more information and integrative practices, which led to the book titled Awakening Kundalini: The Path To Radical Freedom. It complements the material and guided practices in the audio program and together they provide a comprehensive support for people interested in or going through Kundalini awakening and unfolding.
There are many approaches to working with Kundalini. My experience is based on a loving, devotional path of reverence for the Infinite within everyone and everything. My guru and teachers worshiped Kundalini and received Her full blessings. If you want to draw near to some one, what better way than through love?
However, there are teachers who speak of attacking the Kundalini, forcing Her to do their bidding, prodding Her into action and other aggressive approaches. I believe this attempt to assert control is part of the outmoded patriarchal paradigm in which male gods and male priests sought to overthrow the Divine Feminine. Some yogic paths have a very strong patriarchal bias, denouncing women, viewing them as dangerous to one on the spiritual path and treating Kundalini as dangerous and in need of subjugation. Given that kind of hostile way of treating Kundalini, is there any wonder that difficulties ensue?
Instead, seek to understand, appreciate and be in harmony with Her through study, self-discipline, meditation and devotion. She is the power of your own Divinity come to take you home. Who has greater intelligence and knowledge than Her?
What will we have is a gift, a tiny spark of Her Divine Will. Free podcasts of Lawrence Edwards speaking about Kundalini — 1 hour each. Tami Simon, the publisher of Sounds True, interviewed me about Kundalini awakening and the processes involved in Kundalini unfolding. Sounds True has generously made these podcasts freely available. December 9, click to listen to podcast Tami Simon speaks with Dr. Lawrence Edwards, president of The Kundalini Research Network, as well as the founder of a Kundalini support website, kundalinisupport.
He is also a contributing author to a new anthology published by Sounds True entitled Kundalini Rising: Exploring the Energy of Awakening. Lawrence has practiced and taught meditation for over 35 years, is a board-certified neurotherapist, a licensed psychotherapist, and has been on the faculty of New York Medical College since Lawrence discusses his own experiences with Kundalini. August 21, click to listen to podcast Tami Simon speaks with Dr. Lawrence Edwards, president of the Kundalini Research Network and founder of kundalinisupport.
A meditation teacher, board-certified neurotherapist, and licensed psychotherapist, Lawrence has created with Sounds True an audio training program titled Awakening Kundalini: The Path to Radical Freedom. It must not behave in a despotic manner, but must act for the common good as a "moral force based on freedom and a sense of responsibility": 21 A human law has the character of law to the extent that it accords with right reason, and thus derives from the eternal law.
Insofar as it falls short of right reason it is said to be an unjust law, and thus has not so much the nature of law as of a kind of violence. If rulers were to enact unjust laws or take measures contrary to the moral order, such arrangements would not be binding in conscience. In such a case, "authority breaks down completely and results in shameful abuse.
This is the principle of the 'rule of law,' in which the law is sovereign and not the arbitrary will of men. It calls for prudence from each, and even more from those who exercise the office of authority. It consists of three essential elements :. In the name of the common good, public authorities are bound to respect the fundamental and inalienable rights of the human person. Society should permit each of its members to fulfill his vocation. In particular, the common good resides in the conditions for the exercise of the natural freedoms indispensable for the development of the human vocation, such as "the right to act according to a sound norm of conscience and to safeguard.
Development is the epitome of all social duties. Certainly, it is the proper function of authority to arbitrate, in the name of the common good, between various particular interests; but it should make accessible to each what is needed to lead a truly human life: food, clothing, health, work, education and culture, suitable information, the right to establish a family, and so on.
It presupposes that authority should ensure by morally acceptable means the security of society and its members. It is the basis of the right to legitimate personal and collective defence. It is the role of the state to defend and promote the common good of civil society, its citizens, and intermediate bodies.
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The unity of the human family, embracing people who enjoy equal natural dignity, implies a universal common good. This good calls for an organization of the community of nations able to "provide for the different needs of men; this will involve the sphere of social life to which belong questions of food, hygiene, education,. It is necessary that all participate, each according to his position and role, in promoting the common good.
This obligation is inherent in the dignity of the human person. The manner of this participation may vary from one country or culture to another. Fraud and other subterfuges, by which some people evade the constraints of the law and the prescriptions of societal obligation, must be firmly condemned because they are incompatible with the requirements of justice. Much care should be taken to promote institutions that improve the conditions of human life. Participation begins with education and culture.
To attain this it must employ morally acceptable means. Everyone should be concerned to create and support institutions that improve the conditions of human life. The common good of the whole human family calls for an organization of society on the international level. Social justice is linked to the common good and the exercise of authority. The person represents the ultimate end of society, which is ordered to him: What is at stake is the dignity of the human person, whose defense and promotion have been entrusted to us by the Creator, and to whom the men and women at every moment of history are strictly and responsibly in debt.
These rights are prior to society and must be recognized by it. They are the basis of the moral legitimacy of every authority: by flouting them, or refusing to recognize them in its positive legislation, a society undermines its own moral legitimacy. It is the Church's role to remind men of good will of these rights and to distinguish them from unwarranted or false claims. Such behavior will cease only through the charity that finds in every man a "neighbor," a brother. The teaching of Christ goes so far as to require the forgiveness of offenses.
He extends the commandment of love, which is that of the New Law, to all enemies. Redeemed by the sacrifice of Christ, all are called to participate in the same divine beatitude: all therefore enjoy an equal dignity. He needs others. Differences appear tied to age, physical abilities, intellectual or moral aptitudes, the benefits derived from social commerce, and the distribution of wealth.
These differences encourage and often oblige persons to practice generosity, kindness, and sharing of goods; they foster the mutual enrichment of cultures: I distribute the virtues quite diversely; I do not give all of them to each person, but some to one, some to others I shall give principally charity to one; justice to another; humility to this one, a living faith to that one And so I have given many gifts and graces, both spiritual and temporal, with such diversity that I have not given everything to one single person, so that you may be constrained to practice charity towards one another I have willed that one should need another and that all should be my ministers in distributing the graces and gifts they have received from me.
These are in open contradiction of the Gospel: Their equal dignity as persons demands that we strive for fairer and more humane conditions. Excessive economic and social disparity between individuals and peoples of the one human race is a source of scandal and militates against social justice, equity, human dignity, as well as social and international peace.
This law is sealed by the sacrifice of redemption offered by Jesus Christ on the altar of the Cross to his heavenly Father, on behalf of sinful humanity. It also presupposes the effort for a more just social order where tensions are better able to be reduced and conflicts more readily settled by negotiation. International solidarity is a requirement of the moral order; world peace depends in part upon this. In spreading the spiritual goods of the faith, the Church has promoted, and often opened new paths for, the development of temporal goods as well. And so throughout the centuries has the Lord's saying been verified: "Seek first his kingdom and his righteousness, and all these things shall be yours as well": 47 For two thousand years this sentiment has lived and endured in the soul of the Church, impelling souls then and now to the heroic charity of monastic farmers, liberators of slaves, healers of the sick, and messengers of faith, civilization, and science to all generations and all peoples for the sake of creating the social conditions capable of offering to everyone possible a life worthy of man and of a Christian.
These differences should encourage charity. It gives urgency to the elimination of sinful inequalities. It practices the sharing of spiritual goods even more than material ones. Divine help comes to him in Christ through the law that guides him and the grace that sustains him: Work out your own salvation with fear and trembling; for God is at work in you, both to will and to work for his good pleasure. Its biblical meaning can be defined as fatherly instruction, God's pedagogy. It prescribes for man the ways, the rules of conduct that lead to the promised beatitude; it proscribes the ways of evil which turn him away from God and his love.
It is at once firm in its precepts and, in its promises, worthy of love. The moral law presupposes the rational order, established among creatures for their good and to serve their final end, by the power, wisdom, and goodness of the Creator. All law finds its first and ultimate truth in the eternal law. Law is declared and established by reason as a participation in the providence of the living God, Creator and Redeemer of all. Jesus Christ is in person the way of perfection. He is the end of the law, for only he teaches and bestows the justice of God: "For Christ is the end of the law, that every one who has faith may be justified.
The natural law expresses the original moral sense which enables man to discern by reason the good and the evil, the truth and the lie: The natural law is written and engraved on the soul of each and every man, because it is human reason ordaining him to do good and forbidding him to sin. But this command of human reason would not have the force of law if it were not the voice and interpreter of a higher reason to which our spirit and our freedom must be submitted. The natural law states the first and essential precepts which govern the moral life.
It hinges upon the desire for God and submission to him, who is the source and judge of all that is good, as well as upon the sense that the other is one's equal. Its principal precepts are expressed in the Decalogue. This law is called "natural," not in reference to the nature of irrational beings, but because reason which decrees it properly belongs to human nature: Where then are these rules written, if not in the book of that light we call the truth? In it is written every just law; from it the law passes into the heart of the man who does justice, not that it migrates into it, but that it places its imprint on it, like a seal on a ring that passes onto wax, without leaving the ring.
God has given this light or law at the creation. It expresses the dignity of the person and determines the basis for his fundamental rights and duties: For there is a true law: right reason. It is in conformity with nature, is diffused among all men, and is immutable and eternal; its orders summon to duty; its prohibitions turn away from offense To replace it with a contrary law is a sacrilege; failure to apply even one of its provisions is forbidden; no one can abrogate it entirely.
Nevertheless, in the diversity of cultures, the natural law remains as a rule that binds men among themselves and imposes on them, beyond the inevitable differences, common principles. The rules that express it remain substantially valid. Even when it is rejected in its very principles, it cannot be destroyed or removed from the heart of man.
It always rises again in the life of individuals and societies: Theft is surely punished by your law, O Lord, and by the law that is written in the human heart, the law that iniquity itself does not efface. It also provides the indispensable moral foundation for building the human community.
Finally, it provides the necessary basis for the civil law with which it is connected, whether by a reflection that draws conclusions from its principles, or by additions of a positive and juridical nature. In the present situation sinful man needs grace and revelation so moral and religious truths may be known "by everyone with facility, with firm certainty and with no admixture of error. The Law of Moses expresses many truths naturally accessible to reason.
These are stated and authenticated within the covenant of salvation. Its moral prescriptions are summed up in the Ten Commandments. The precepts of the Decalogue lay the foundations for the vocation of man fashioned in the image of God; they prohibit what is contrary to the love of God and neighbor and prescribe what is essential to it. The Decalogue is a light offered to the conscience of every man to make God's call and ways known to him and to protect him against evil: God wrote on the tables of the Law what men did not read in their hearts.
Like a tutor 15 it shows what must be done, but does not of itself give the strength, the grace of the Spirit, to fulfill it. Because of sin, which it cannot remove, it remains a law of bondage. According to St. Paul, its special function is to denounce and disclose sin, which constitutes a "law of concupiscence" in the human heart. It prepares and disposes the chosen people and each Christian for conversion and faith in the Savior God.
It provides a teaching which endures for ever, like the Word of God. Finally, the Law is completed by the teaching of the sapiential books and the prophets which set its course toward the New Covenant and the Kingdom of heaven. There were. Conversely, there exist carnal men under the New Covenant still distanced from the perfection of the New Law: the fear of punishment and certain temporal promises have been necessary, even under the New Covenant, to incite them to virtuous works.
In any case, even though the Old Law prescribed charity, it did not give the Holy Spirit, through whom "God's charity has been poured into our hearts. It is the work of Christ and is expressed particularly in the Sermon on the Mount. It is also the work of the Holy Spirit and through him it becomes the interior law of charity: "I will establish a New Covenant with the house of Israel I will put my laws into their minds, and write them on their hearts, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.
It works through charity; it uses the Sermon on the Mount to teach us what must be done and makes use of the sacraments to give us the grace to do it: If anyone should meditate with devotion and perspicacity on the sermon our Lord gave on the mount, as we read in the Gospel of Saint Matthew, he will doubtless find there. This sermon contains The Lord's Sermon on the Mount, far from abolishing or devaluing the moral prescriptions of the Old Law, releases their hidden potential and has new demands arise from them: it reveals their entire divine and human truth.
It does not add new external precepts, but proceeds to reform the heart, the root of human acts, where man chooses between the pure and the impure, 22 where faith, hope, and charity are formed and with them the other virtues. The Gospel thus brings the Law to its fullness through imitation of the perfection of the heavenly Father, through forgiveness of enemies and prayer for persecutors, in emulation of the divine generosity. This doctrine hands on the Lord's teaching with the authority of the apostles, particularly in the presentation of the virtues that flow from faith in Christ and are animated by charity, the principal gift of the Holy Spirit.
Love one another with brotherly affection Rejoice in your hope, be patient in tribulation, be constant in prayer. Contribute to the needs of the saints, practice hospitality. The traditional distinction between God's commandments and the evangelical counsels is drawn in relation to charity, the perfection of Christian life. The precepts are intended to remove whatever is incompatible with charity.
The aim of the counsels is to remove whatever might hinder the development of charity, even if it is not contrary to it. They attest its vitality and call forth our spiritual readiness. The perfection of the New Law consists essentially in the precepts of love of God and neighbor. The counsels point out the more direct ways, the readier means, and are to be practiced in keeping with the vocation of each: [God] does not want each person to keep all the counsels, but only those appropriate to the diversity of persons, times, opportunities, and strengths, as charity requires; for it is charity, as queen of all virtues, all commandments, all counsels, and, in short, of all laws and all Christian actions that gives to all of them their rank, order, time, and value.
Rom ; only he teaches and bestows the justice of God. It expresses the dignity of the human person and forms the basis of his fundamental rights and duties. It is a necessary foundation for the erection of moral rules and civil law. God has revealed them because men did not read them in their hearts. It finds expression above all in the Lord's Sermon on the Mount and uses the sacraments to communicate grace to us.
For we know that Christ being raised from the dead will never die again; death no longer has dominion over him. The death he died he died to sin, once for all, but the life he lives he lives to God. So you also must consider yourselves as dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus. By the participation of the Spirit, we become communicants in the divine nature For this reason, those in whom the Spirit dwells are divinized. Justification follows upon God's merciful initiative of offering forgiveness.
It reconciles man with God. It frees from the enslavement to sin, and it heals. Righteousness or "justice" here means the rectitude of divine love. With justification, faith, hope, and charity are poured into our hearts, and obedience to the divine will is granted us. Justification is conferred in Baptism, the sacrament of faith.
It conforms us to the righteousness of God, who makes us inwardly just by the power of his mercy. Its purpose is the glory of God and of Christ, and the gift of eternal life: 40 But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from law, although the law and the prophets bear witness to it, the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe.
For there is no distinction: since all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, they are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus, whom God put forward as an expiation by his blood, to be received by faith. This was to show God's righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over former sins; it was to prove at the present time that he himself is righteous and that he justifies him who has faith in Jesus.
On man's part it is expressed by the assent of faith to the Word of God, which invites him to conversion, and in the cooperation of charity with the prompting of the Holy Spirit who precedes and preserves his assent: When God touches man's heart through the illumination of the Holy Spirit, man himself is not inactive while receiving that inspiration, since he could reject it; and yet, without God's grace, he cannot by his own free will move himself toward justice in God's sight.
It is the opinion of St. Augustine that "the justification of the wicked is a greater work than the creation of heaven and earth," because "heaven and earth will pass away but the salvation and justification of the elect. By giving birth to the "inner man," 44 justification entails the sanctification of his whole being: Just as you once yielded your members to impurity and to greater and greater iniquity, so now yield your members to righteousness for sanctification But now that you have been set free from sin and have become slaves of God, the return you get is sanctification and its end, eternal life.
Grace is favor, the free and undeserved help that God gives us to respond to his call to become children of God, adoptive sons, partakers of the divine nature and of eternal life. It introduces us into the intimacy of Trinitarian life: by Baptism the Christian participates in the grace of Christ, the Head of his Body. As an "adopted son" he can henceforth call God "Father," in union with the only Son. He receives the life of the Spirit who breathes charity into him and who forms the Church. It depends entirely on God's gratuitous initiative, for he alone can reveal and give himself.
It surpasses the power of human intellect and will, as that of every other creature. It is the sanctifying or deifying grace received in Baptism. It is in us the source of the work of sanctification: 48 Therefore if any one is in Christ, he is a new creation; the old has passed away, behold, the new has come. All this is from God, who through Christ reconciled us to himself.
Habitual grace, the permanent disposition to live and act in keeping with God's call, is distinguished from actual graces which refer to God's interventions, whether at the beginning of conversion or in the course of the work of sanctification. This latter is needed to arouse and sustain our collaboration in justification through faith, and in sanctification through charity.
God brings to completion in us what he has begun, "since he who completes his work by cooperating with our will began by working so that we might will it:" 50 Indeed we also work, but we are only collaborating with God who works, for his mercy has gone before us. It has gone before us so that we may be healed, and follows us so that once healed, we may be given life; it goes before us so that we may be called, and follows us so that we may be glorified; it goes before us so that we may live devoutly, and follows us so that we may always live with God: for without him we can do nothing.
The soul only enters freely into the communion of love. God immediately touches and directly moves the heart of man. He has placed in man a longing for truth and goodness that only he can satisfy. The promises of "eternal life" respond, beyond all hope, to this desire: If at the end of your very good works.
But grace also includes the gifts that the Spirit grants us to associate us with his work, to enable us to collaborate in the salvation of others and in the growth of the Body of Christ, the Church. There are sacramental graces, gifts proper to the different sacraments. There are furthermore special graces, also called charisms after the Greek term used by St. Paul and meaning "favor," "gratuitous gift," "benefit. They are at the service of charity which builds up the Church. We cannot therefore rely on our feelings or our works to conclude that we are justified and saved.
A pleasing illustration of this attitude is found in the reply of St. Joan of Arc to a question posed as a trap by her ecclesiastical judges: "Asked if she knew that she was in God's grace, she replied: 'If I am not, may it please God to put me in it; if I am, may it please God to keep me there. You are glorified in the assembly of your Holy Ones, for in crowning their merits you are crowning your own gifts.
Merit is relative to the virtue of justice, in conformity with the principle of equality which governs it.
Concious Acts of Grace
Between God and us there is an immeasurable inequality, for we have received everything from him, our Creator. The fatherly action of God is first on his own initiative, and then follows man's free acting through his collaboration, so that the merit of good works is to be attributed in the first place to the grace of God, then to the faithful.
Man's merit, moreover, itself is due to God, for his good actions proceed in Christ, from the predispositions and assistance given by the Holy Spirit. This is our right by grace, the full right of love, making us "co-heirs" with Christ and worthy of obtaining "the promised inheritance of eternal life. Our merits are God's gifts. Moved by the Holy Spirit and by charity, we can then merit for ourselves and for others the graces needed for our sanctification, for the increase of grace and charity, and for the attainment of eternal life.
Even temporal goods like health and friendship can be merited in accordance with God's wisdom. These graces and goods are the object of Christian prayer. Prayer attends to the grace we need for meritorious actions. Grace, by uniting us to Christ in active love, ensures the supernatural quality of our acts and consequently their merit before God and before men.
The saints have always had a lively awareness that their merits were pure grace. After earth's exile, I hope to go and enjoy you in the fatherland, but I do not want to lay up merits for heaven. I want to work for your love alone In the evening of this life, I shall appear before you with empty hands, for I do not ask you, Lord, to count my works.
All our justice is blemished in your eyes. I wish, then, to be clothed in your own justice and to receive from your love the eternal possession of yourself. For those whom he fore knew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, in order that he might be the first-born among many brethren. And those whom he predestined he also called; and those whom he called he also justified; and those whom he justified he also glorified.
Thus the holiness of the People of God will grow in fruitful abundance, as is clearly shown in the history of the Church through the lives of so many saints.
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This union is called "mystical" because it participates in the mystery of Christ through the sacraments - "the holy mysteries" - and, in him, in the mystery of the Holy Trinity. God calls us all to this intimate union with him, even if the special graces or extraordinary signs of this mystical life are granted only to some for the sake of manifesting the gratuitous gift given to all.
There is no holiness without renunciation and spiritual battle. He never stops desiring what he already knows. Uniting us by faith and Baptism to the Passion and Resurrection of Christ, the Spirit makes us sharers in his life. Moved by grace, man turns toward God and away from sin, and so accepts forgiveness and righteousness from on high. It is granted us through Baptism. It conforms us to the righteousness of God, who justifies us. It has for its goal the glory of God and of Christ, and the gift of eternal life. It is the most excellent work of God's mercy.
It introduces us into the intimacy of the Trinitarian life. Grace responds to the deepest yearnings of human freedom, calls freedom to cooperate with it, and perfects freedom. God also acts through many actual graces, to be distinguished from habitual grace which is permanent in us. Merit is to be ascribed in the first place to the grace of God, and secondly to man's collaboration. Man's merit is due to God. Charity is the principal source of merit in us before God. Moved by the Holy Spirit, we can merit for ourselves and for others all the graces needed to attain eternal life, as well as necessary temporal goods.
Gregory of Nyssa, De vita Mos. From the Church he receives the Word of God containing the teachings of "the law of Christ. We "present [our] bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God," 73 within the Body of Christ that we form and in communion with the offering of his Eucharist. In the liturgy and the celebration of the sacraments, prayer and teaching are conjoined with the grace of Christ to enlighten and nourish Christian activity.
As does the whole of the Christian life, the moral life finds its source and summit in the Eucharistic sacrifice. Thus from generation to generation, under the aegis and vigilance of the pastors, the "deposit" of Christian moral teaching has been handed on, a deposit composed of a characteristic body of rules, commandments, and virtues proceeding from faith in Christ and animated by charity.
Alongside the Creed and the Our Father, the basis for this catechesis has traditionally been the Decalogue which sets out the principles of moral life valid for all men. This infallibility extends as far as does the deposit of divine Revelation; it also extends to all those elements of doctrine, including morals, without which the saving truths of the faith cannot be preserved, explained, or observed. In recalling the prescriptions of the natural law, the Magisterium of the Church exercises an essential part of its prophetic office of proclaiming to men what they truly are and reminding them of what they should be before God.
The faithful therefore have the right to be instructed in the divine saving precepts that purify judgment and, with grace, heal wounded human reason. Even if they concern disciplinary matters, these determinations call for docility in charity. Faith and the practice of the Gospel provide each person with an experience of life "in Christ," who enlightens him and makes him able to evaluate the divine and human realities according to the Spirit of God. As far as possible conscience should take account of the good of all, as expressed in the moral law, natural and revealed, and consequently in the law of the Church and in the authoritative teaching of the Magisterium on moral questions.
Personal conscience and reason should not be set in opposition to the moral law or the Magisterium of the Church. It is the normal flowering of the baptismal grace which has begotten us in the womb of the Church and made us members of the Body of Christ. In her motherly care, the Church grants us the mercy of God which prevails over all our sins and is especially at work in the sacrament of reconciliation.
With a mother's foresight, she also lavishes on us day after day in her liturgy the nourishment of the Word and Eucharist of the Lord. The obligatory character of these positive laws decreed by the pastoral authorities is meant to guarantee to the faithful the very necessary minimum in the spirit of prayer and moral effort, in the growth in love of God and neighbor:. In order that the message of salvation can show the power of its truth and radiance before men, it must be authenticated by the witness of the life of Christians.
The Church increases, grows, and develops through the holiness of her faithful, until "we all attain to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to mature manhood, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ. Christian activity finds its nourishment in the liturgy and the celebration of the sacraments.
It is also encumbent on them to pronounce on moral questions that fall within the natural law and reason. Augustine, En. CIC, can. Then Jesus tells him: "If you would enter life, keep the commandments. The Law has not been abolished, 3 but rather man is invited to rediscover it in the person of his Master who is its perfect fulfillment. In the three synoptic Gospels, Jesus' call to the rich young man to follow him, in the obedience of a disciple and in the observance of the Commandments, is joined to the call to poverty and chastity.
He preached a "righteousness [which] exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees" 5 as well as that of the Gentiles. But I say to you that every one who is angry with his brother shall be liable to judgment. This is the greatest and first commandment. And a second is like it: You shall love your neighbor as yourself. On these two commandments hang all the Law and the prophets.
They were written "with the finger of God," 12 unlike the other commandments written by Moses. They are handed on to us in the books of Exodus 14 and Deuteronomy.
Whether formulated as negative commandments, prohibitions, or as positive precepts such as: "Honor your father and mother," the "ten words" point out the conditions of a life freed from the slavery of sin. The Decalogue is a path of life: If you love the LORD your God, by walking in his ways, and by keeping his commandments and his statutes and his ordinances, then you shall live and multiply. And he wrote them upon two tables of stone, and gave them to me. These "tables of the Testimony" were to be deposited in "the ark.
They belong to God's revelation of himself and his glory. The gift of the Commandments is the gift of God himself and his holy will. In making his will known, God reveals himself to his people. In Exodus, the revelation of the "ten words" is granted between the proposal of the covenant 22 and its conclusion - after the people had committed themselves to "do" all that the Lord had said, and to "obey" it. According to Scripture, man's moral life has all its meaning in and through the covenant.
The first of the "ten words" recalls that God loved his people first: Since there was a passing from the paradise of freedom to the slavery of this world, in punishment for sin, the first phrase of the Decalogue, the first word of God's commandments, bears on freedom "I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.
Moral existence is a response to the Lord's loving initiative. It is the acknowledgement and homage given to God and a worship of thanksgiving. It is cooperation with the plan God pursues in history. In all God's commandments, the singular personal pronoun designates the recipient. God makes his will known to each person in particular, at the same time as he makes it known to the whole people: The Lord prescribed love towards God and taught justice towards neighbor, so that man would be neither unjust, nor unworthy of God. Thus, through the Decalogue, God prepared man to become his friend and to live in harmony with his neighbor The words of the Decalogue remain likewise for us Christians.
Far from being abolished, they have received amplification and development from the fact of the coming of the Lord in the flesh. Augustine, the Ten Commandments have occupied a predominant place in the catechesis of baptismal candidates and the faithful. In the fifteenth century, the custom arose of expressing the commandments of the Decalogue in rhymed formulae, easy to memorize and in positive form. They are still in use today. The catechisms of the Church have often expounded Christian morality by following the order of the Ten Commandments.
The present catechism follows the division of the Commandments established by St. Augustine, which has become traditional in the Catholic Church. It is also that of the Lutheran confessions. The Greek Fathers worked out a slightly different division, which is found in the Orthodox Churches and Reformed communities. The first three concern love of God, and the other seven love of neighbor. As charity comprises the two commandments to which the Lord related the whole Law and the prophets.
Three were written on one tablet and seven on the other. Each "word" refers to each of the others and to all of them; they reciprocally condition one another. The two tables shed light on one another; they form an organic unity. To transgress one commandment is to infringe all the others.
One cannot adore God without loving all men, his creatures. The Decalogue brings man's religious and social life into unity. At the same time they teach us the true humanity of man. They bring to light the essential duties, and therefore, indirectly, the fundamental rights inherent in the nature of the human person. The Decalogue contains a privileged expression of the natural law: From the beginning, God had implanted in the heart of man the precepts of the natural law. Then he was content to remind him of them. This was the Decalogue. To attain a complete and certain understanding of the requirements of the natural law, sinful humanity needed this revelation: A full explanation of the commandments of the Decalogue became necessary in the state of sin because the light of reason was obscured and the will had gone astray.
They are fundamentally immutable, and they oblige always and everywhere. No one can dispense from them. The Ten Commandments are engraved by God in the human heart. Thus abusive language is forbidden by the fifth commandment, but would be a grave offense only as a result of circumstances or the offender's intention. He who abides in me, and I in him, he it is that bears much fruit, for apart from me you can do nothing. When we believe in Jesus Christ, partake of his mysteries, and keep his commandments, the Savior himself comes to love, in us, his Father and his brethren, our Father and our brethren.
His person becomes, through the Spirit, the living and interior rule of our activity. God's commandments take on their true meaning in and through this covenant. To transgress one commandment is to infringe the whole Law cf. Jas It is made known to us by divine revelation and by human reason. However, obedience to these precepts also implies obligations in matter which is, in itself, light. The love of the One God is recalled in the first of the "ten words. You shall have no other gods before me. You shall not make for yourself a graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; you shall not bow down to them or serve them.
You shall not go after other gods. Man's vocation is to make God manifest by acting in conformity with his creation "in the image and likeness of God": There will never be another God, Trypho, and there has been no other since the world began. We do not think that our God is different from yours. He is the same who brought your fathers out of Egypt "by his powerful hand and his outstretched arm. When we say 'God' we confess a constant, unchangeable being, always the same, faithful and just, without any evil. It follows that we must necessarily accept his words and have complete faith in him and acknowledge his authority.