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View Preview. Learn more Check out. Volume , Issue 4 October Pages Related Information. He only stood still looking on, while the French upon the Matter supprest the Reformed in France; and suffered Ferdinand the 2d to over-run, and near subdue the Protestant Princes in Germany, as well as his own Son-in-law: And tho he were the 6th of that Name, King of Scotland, from John, alias Robert Stuart, the Son of Robert Stuart, by his Paramour Elizabeth Moor; yet if Sir James Melvil says true, that Cardinal Bethoun poisoned James the 5th, he was the first of that Name who died a natural Death, if he did so; for James the first was murdered by his Uncle the Earl of Athol, his Grand-father's legitimate Son, in his Queen's Arms, with eight and twenty Wounds, the Queen receiving two to defend him.
This was in the Year James the II. James the III.
This was in James the IV. When King James died, the Nation was rent into four Parties, viz. After the Treaties of Marriage between the Prince and the Daughters of Spain and France, the Popish and Prerogative Parties joined for carrying on the Court-Designs; and were opposed by the Country and Puritan Parties: and as the Prerogative and Popish Factions grew more insolent, so the Puritan Party gathered Strength and Reputation among the Vulgar or ordinary People, insomuch that in Number they became more than all the other three.
We shall take a better View of this Reign, if we look a little back into the former. The King thereupon referred this Business to my Lord Keeper Williams, my Lord Treasurer Cranfield, the Duke of Richmond, Marquess Hamilton, the Earl of Arundel, the Lord Carew, and the Lord Belfast; who all agreed, that they could not say that the King of Spain had done the part of a Friend in the Recovery of the Palatinate, as he had professed; nor could find that he had acted the Part of an Enemy declaredly, as the Duke objected: and indeed my Lord Keeper's Reasons against the War governed all the rest, that saw no Expediency for War upon the Grounds communicated by Buckingham.
For the King of Spain, he saw no Cause to assault him with Arms: He had held us indeed in a long Treaty to our Loss, but he held nothing from us; and was more likely to continue the State of things in a State of Possibility of Accommodation, because he disliked the Duke of Bavaria 's Ambition, and had rather stop the Enlargement of his Territories.
The King embraced this Advice; nor did he stay here yet did not stay long but spake hardly of Buckingham, who would have put him upon making War upon the King of Spain; and the King's Censure upon him was so bitter, Cabal, Page See the Bishop, tit. So that how powerful soever the Duke was over King James, yet in none of these Particulars could he obtain his End; viz.
See the Bishop of Litchfield, lib. King James then began to look back upon his former Actions, in having lost the Affections of his Subjects; and now intangled in the Difficulties which he saw inevitably coming upon him, charged the Prince often, in the hearing of the Lord Keeper Williams, to call Parliaments often, and to continue them, tho their Rashness sometimes did offend him: That in his own Experience he never got any Good by falling out with them.
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How well King Charles observed his Father's Advice in any of these; nay, how diametrically he went contrary, and contrary to all good Advice given him in the very first Year of his Reign, will soon appear, and the miserable Effects which followed. I have heard my Father tho not a Courtier, yet acquainted with many Courtiers say, that they would oft pray to God that the Prince might be in the right Way where he set, for if he were in the wrong, he would prove the most wilful of any King that ever reigned. But it's time to come to Particulars.
THey offer to lay Wagers the Fleet goes not this Year, and that of necessity shortly a Parliament must be; which, when it comes, sure it will much discontent you. It's wonder'd at, that since the King did give such great Gifts to the Dutchess of Chevereux, and those that went, how now a small Sum in the Parliament should be called for at such a time: and let the Parliament sit when it will, begin they will where they ended. They say, the Lords of the Council knew nothing of Mansfield 's Journey, or this Fleet, which discontents even the best sort, if not all.
The Success of this Expedition you will hear soon. Thus was the King of Spain required for all the noble Favours he had shewn the King when he was in Spain. But this was but an Accusation, and therefore it does not amount to a Proof. The King had no Men of War ready, but the Vaunt-Guard; and the French Necessities were urgent, for all this while Sobiez rode triumphant at Sea, the French not being able to encounter him; and thereby Rochel upon all Occasions was relieved by Sea.
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But there was another Obstacle to be removed, or this worthy Design was at a full Stop. I will be particular herein, not only to shew what a Minister of State Buckingham was, or what Reliance there was upon his Word or Honour, but more especially, for that the Ruin not only of the whole Interest of the Reformed of France was a Consequence of this Action, wherein the Mercenary Dutch State conspired also with the Duke; but it was the Foundation upon which the French Naval Grandeur was built, as well to the Terror of Christendom, as of England at this very Day.
That they should consent and agree, in consideration of the Assurance given them by the Ambassadors, to the Articles of the 25th of March before, which you may read in Rushworth, fol. That if the French King would take any Men out of the Ships, he might; but without any Diminution to the Fraight, for or in respect thereof. To these, Moyer, in the behalf of the Merchants, answered, 1. That their Ships should not go to serve against Rochel. That they would not send their Ships without good Warrants. Dove disswaded the Duke from this Enterprize, telling him, he could not justify nor answer the Delivery of the Ships.
But the Captains of the Ships refused to submit to the Conditions, tho Mr. Nicholas, in the King's Name, from Day to Day threatned them, and vehemently pressed them to deliver up their Ships upon the former Propositions. Hereupon D'Efsiat to have further Instructions from the Duke entred into a new Treaty with the Merchants, and like a French Merchant, got Letters to be sent into England, that the Peace was concluded with those of the Religion in France, and that within 14 Days the War should break out in Italy, with a Design upon Genoua, a matter of great Importance against the Spaniard.
Hereupon Pennington went on Shore, and spoke with D'Efsiat, and upon his Return told the Captains, they must rely upon the Security peraffetted in England; whereupon the Captains weighed Anchor, and prepared to be gone; upon which Captain Pennington shot at them, and forced them all to come to an Anchor again, except the brave Sir Ferdinando Gorge in the Neptune, more brave in running away from this abominable Action, than charging into the midst of an Enemy. Nicholas, who enforced them to come to a new Agreement, which you may read in Rushworth, fol.
The Articles of Marriage of the King of Great Britain, with Madam Henrietta Maria of France.
You'll hear more of this hereafter. It's observable, when Humour, not Counsel, governs Actions, how it runs into the contrary Extreams. This Parliament met upon the 18th of June The Speech you may read in Rushworth, fol. But Mr. Nor was Williams displaced till the 23d of October following, as you may see fol.
But that we may better look forward, look a little back. Whereas we have been moved, in Contemplation of our Marriage with the Lady Mary, Sister of Our dear Brother, the Most Christian King, to grant to Our Subjects, Roman Catholicks, a Cessation of all and singular Pains and Penalties, as well Corporal as Pecuniary, whereunto they be subject, or any ways may be liable by any Laws, Statutes, Ordinances, or any thing whatsoever, or for or by reason of their Recusancy or Religion, in every Matter or thing concerning the same: Our Will and Pleasure is, and we do by these Presents authorize and require you upon the Receipt hereof.
And this is so much more remarkable, that this Warrant was granted when Buckingham was so busy in setting out the Fleet against the Rochellers. Here was a Suspension of the Laws with a Witness, by the King's absolute Will and Pleasure, notwithstanding all the Officers by Law were under the Obligations of their Oaths to the contrary: and for the first-Fruits of this Warrant the King granted upon the 10th of May, a special Pardon to twenty Roman Priests, of all Offences committed by them against the Laws. Can any Man now believe, that the Parliament 18th Jac.
But if it be asked how it does appear, that Laud was concerned in this Act and Promotion of Mountague; I answer, there is a threefold Reason to induce the Belief of it: First, the end for which this Book was wrote, for Promotion of Arminian Tenets, whereof Laud was so great a Stickler. If Laud was the first that sowed Dissension between the King and Parliament upon the Pretence of the Church of England, Buckingham shall be the second, upon the Account of the Church of Rome: and herein you'll see the Temper of Buckingham to any which should presume to give him good Counsel.
The Dissension between the King and Commons began with Mountague at London, where the Plague than raged, and all England over, so that most of the Members shrunk away, to flee the Danger of it, and those that staid were in danger of their Lives: This put the King into a marvellous Strait what to do, for his Necessities, as Buckingham managed Affairs, and his being imbroiled in the Spanish War, were such as the Subsidies granted the King his Father the last Year, and those granted the King now, could not support.
The Keeper hereupon besought the King to hear him in private, and acquainted the King, That the Duke had Enemies in the House of Commons, who had contrived Complaints, and made them ready to be preferred, and would spend time at Oxford about them. And what Folly were it to continue a Sessions that had no other Aim, but to bring the Duke upon the Stage? But if your Majesty think that this is like an Hectick, quickly known, but hardly cured; my humble Opinion is, That the Malady or Malice, call it what you will, may sleep awhile after Christmas; there is no time lost in whetting the Sithe well.
But why, said the King, do you conceal this from Buckingham? Hereupon the Members were in such a Heat, that they strived who should blame it most: What! But for the Lord Keeper that brought the King's Message, and knew it best, and for a Bishop to set the Seal to such a Warrant, for him to do wrong to Religion, it was enormous. Hereupon Mr. The Commons hereupon turned about to clear the Keeper and commend him; but what pleased the Parliament at Oxford, did not please the Court at Woodstock, where this had not pleased the King.
The Lord Keeper at Woodstock was censured by the Duke and his Creatures for this; the Keeper therefore unsent for, comes to Woodstoock, and thus applies himself to the Duke. You brought the two Houses hither, my Lord, against my Counsel; my Suspicion is confirmed that your Grace will suffer for it.
What's now to be done, but to wind up a Session quickly? I have more to say, but no more than I have said to your Grace above a Year past at White-hall; confer one or two of your great Places upon your fastest Friends, so shall you go less in Envy, and not less in Power. Great Necessities will excuse hard Proposals and horrid Counsels: St. At the Close of the Sessions declare your self to be forwardest to serve the King and Commonwealth, and to give the Parliament Satisfaction.
This is my Advice, my Lord; if you like it not, Truth in the end will find an Advocate to defend it. The Duke replied no more but, I will look to whom I trust, and flung out of the Chamber with Menaces in his Countenance. Where Mr. Rushworth could have had; but especially since the Reasons which the Keeper put into the King's hands, which you may read in the Life of the Keeper, par.
Rushworth says, I incline rather to believe the Bishop. Continue this Assembly together to another Session, and expect Alteration for the better; if you do not, the next Swarm will come out of the same Hive. Thus far the Bishop. Rushworth does, fol. Here let's stay a little, and see what state the King had brought himself to, within less than five Months, after he became King.
Thirdly, He broke his Word with the Parliament concerning the Execution of these Laws, within a Day, or two at most, after he gave it. Now let's see the Success of the War against the Spaniards. This alarm'd the Council, lest these should land either in England or Ireland, whenas in neither any Provision was made to oppose them, especially in England, where the Earl of Warwick had Orders to dismiss of the Trained-bands of Essex, that were to secure Harwich: however, it's fit here to mention the noble Act of that Earl, in building Langard-Fort on Suffolk side, to secure the Entrance into the Port, the most famous of all the English Eastern Coast, and which is yet continued to this day.
Nor had the Design upon Cadiz more Success than that upon Dunkirk; for a furious Storm arose in their Passage it may be the same which separated the English and Dutch before Dunkirk which so scattered the Fleet, that of 80, no less than 50 were missing for 7 Days. Yet the General for some time was not admitted into the King's Presence, and some of the Colonels of his Army accused him, and some Sea-men aggravated the Accusation: Hereupon the General was examined before the Council, and he laid the Fault upon others in the Fleet, who let the King of Spain 's Ships pass without fighting them, according to Order; and they on the other hand said, they had no Order from the General to fight.
See the King's Declaration for Dissolving his second Parliament, which you may read in Rushworth, fol. But hereby the Loss manifoldly fell more upon the English than Spaniards; for these Trades, above all others, were the most beneficial and gainful to the English; and by the Peace which the King's Father made with Spain and the free Trade which the English thereby enjoyed in Spain and Flanders, the Nation became doubly more enriched than in the long Reign of Queen Elizabeth, which was double as long as K.
James 's, after he had made this Peace: Thus as the King by breaking of the Parliament disabled himself of Means for carrying on the War against Spain, so by this Inhibition of the English to trade with Spain, he disabled his Subjects from giving him such Assistance as otherwise they might.
And here you may see the little Artifices the King's grand Ministers of State put him upon for the attaining his Ends, and how quite contrary they succeeded. In looking a little back you'll better see forward. These Parts were so well observed in him by King James, that without any Solicitation of Buckingham, or any other, but whilst he solicited for another, the King conferr'd the Lord Keeper's Place upon him, as you may read in his Life, fol.
Cardinal Richlieu is much celebrated for the Speech he made in the Convention of Notables, which you may read at large in Howel 's Life of Richlieu, f. The third Speech was, when the Earl of Essex moved the House of Lords, in the Year , that the Bishops might be expell'd the House, not their Persons, but their Order; which you may read at large in the second Part of the Keeper's Life, from fol.
See the Speech in the first Part of his Life, f. When the Keeper had notice of this, in a pathetical Letter to the King, which you may read in his Life, in the second Part, f. The first of his Requests was for the King's Favour in general, which the King granted, and gave him his Hand twice to kiss upon it. Secondly, That the King would take away none of his Church-Preferments, as he had graciously promised, till he had given him better in lieu of them: the King answered, It was his Intention.
Fifthly, That the King would declare to the Lords, that the Keeper had willingly and readily yielded to his Majesty's Pleasure, and that he parted in the King's Favour and good Opinion, and was still his Servant: the King said, He would, but that he looked that no Petitions be made for him by any Man at that time, but only for his Favour in general. Eighthly, The Keeper besought the King to bestow the next Prebendary in Westminster upon his Library-keeper, as his Father had promised, or that he might resume his Books again: the King said, It was full of Reason.
John's-College in Cambridg, whereof two he had bought with his Money, and two the King gave him for the good of the Society: the King said, He would ratify the Grant, and give way to amend any Errors in the Form, or in passing of it. John's-College he mist all that he sought for and expected; nor could he ever get a Farthing of his Pension, nor bring it to an Audit to his dying-day; nor did the Keeper's Enemies stop here, but sought to provoke against him the King's Displeasure, with things which were neither consistent with the King's Honour, nor scarce to be born by the Temper of Human Nature; and were so hasty in it, that the King's Promise, that the Bishop of Lincoln now no more Lord-Keeper should enjoy the King's Favour, was scarce three Months old, when they put not only the King out of mind of his Promise, but the Bishop out of the Duty of his Place, but that Laud should perform it, whether the Bishop would or not.
It has been said with what Difficulty the Bishop of Lincoln for so we must now call him procured Laud the Bishoprick of St. David 's; and the Bishop staid not there, but retained him in his Prebendary at Westminster, and so after gave him a Living in the Diocess of St.
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David 's of l. These two last, being Additions to Laud 's Preferment, coming from the Bishop of Lincoln voluntarily, and unsought for by Laud, he by Mr. But these Favours were not eighteen Months planted when Laud became the Bishop's sharpest Enemy, as you may read in the first Part of his Life, f.
Andrews, as you may read in the second Part of his Life, f. It made a mighty Noise and an Inquiry, which otherwise would not have been, that Sir Edward Coke, in his extream Age, now 77 Years old, and who had been Chief Justice of both Benches, and Privy-Counsellor, should be made a Sheriff of the County, and the more, for that Sir Edward Coke took Exceptions to the Oath of a Sheriff, whereupon it was altered. Now let us see the Success. However, these were Generals, but the first Particular fell upon Mountague in five particular Articles, wherein he had broken the Laws and Statutes of the Realm, and disturbed the Peace both of the Church and Commonwealth.
Whereas in the second Homily, entituled, Against the Peril of Idolatry, and approved by the 37th Article, it is declared, That Images teach no good Lesson, neither of God or Godliness, but all Error and Wickedness; he, the said Mountague, does maintain, Images may be used for the Instruction of the Ignorant, and Excitation of Devotion.
You will hear further of the Care he took of Buckingham, in his Reply to the Commons Address upon this. The King, in answer to the Commons, tells them, he takes the Cause of their presenting Grievances, to be a Parenthesis, and not a Condition; and will be willing to hear their Grievances, so as they apply themselves to redress Grievances, and not enquire after Grievances: That he will not allow any of his Servants to be question'd by them, much less such as are of eminent Place about him; that the old question was, What shall be done to the Man whom the King honours?
But now it hath been the Labour of some to seek what may be done against him whom the King thinks fit to honour; he saw they specially aimed at the Duke of Buckingham, and wonders what had altered their Affections to him, when in the last Parliament of his Father's time he was their Instrument to break the Treaties, for which they did so honour and respect him, that all the Honour conferred upon him was too little: He wot not what had chang'd their Minds; but assures them, that the Duke had not meddled with, or done any thing concerning the Publick, but by his special Directions, and was so far from gaining any Estate thereby, that he verily thinks the Duke rather impaired the fame.
He would have them hasten the Supplies, or it will be the worse for them; for if any Ill happens, he thinks he shall be the last that shall feel it. The Commons had yet fresh in Memory the Dissolution of the Parliament at Oxford, about six Months before, and what Trust there was to this King's Word for Redress of Grievances, so as it was done in a dutiful and mannerly Way, after they had given Money; and therefore they little altered their Course from what they had done at Oxford, yet more than Parliaments heretofore did, to have Grievances first redress'd, and then to give Supplies; for they voted to proceed upon Grievances, and to give the King three Subsidies, and three Fifteenths.
This gave the Duke little Satisfaction: so that the King himself became the Duke's Advocate, and told the Commons in a Speech, which you may read in Rushw. Then the King added, that in his Father's time, by their Perswasion, he was their Instrument to break off those Treaties; and that then no Body was in so great Favour with 'em as the Man they seem now to touch, but indeed his Father's Government, and his; and that Parliaments are altogether in his Power for their Calling, Sitting and Dissolution; and as he finds the Fruits, they are to continue, or not to be.
You have heard before how the Earl of Bristol was stopp'd at Calais from coming over into England, after his Return out of Spain; and after he came to Dover, when the Duke could not prevail upon Marquiss Hamilton, and the Earl of Hertford, to have the Earl sent to the Tower upon his Arrival in England; how he was stopp'd by a Letter from the Lord Conway, that he should not come to Court, nor to the King's Presence, till he had answered to some Queries which his Majesty would appoint some of the Lords of the Council to ask him, which was not done till the Parliament was adjourned, and never met more; and how after King James 's Death the Earl was not only kept from his Liberty, and the King's Presence, but removed from all his Offices and Employments, and not suffered to come to an Account for the Moneys expended in the King's Service; and not permitted to come to the Parliament which was dissolved at Oxford.
These Letters you may read at large in Rushworth, fol. Hereupon the Lords petition the King, that not only the Earl of Bristol, but all such other Lords whose Writs are stopt, except such as are made uncapable to sit in Parliament, by Judgment of Parliament, or some other legal Judgment, may be summoned. This nettled the Duke to the quick, so that he told the House the King had sent the Earl his Writ, but withal deliver'd such a Letter, which the King sent to the Earl, which I care not to transcribe, but you may read it in Rushworth, fol.
And upon the Delivery of them, the Earl desired a Copy of the King's Charge against him in Writing, and time allowed to answer, and Counsel assigned him; and said there was a great Difference between the Duke and him, for the Duke was accused of Treason, and at large, and in the King's Favour, and that he, being but accused of that which he had long since answered, was a Prisoner, and therefore moved the Duke might be put in equal Condition; which tho the House did not, yet were not satisfied to commit the Earl to the Tower, and order'd, That the King's Charge against the Earl should be first heard, and then the Earl's against the Duke; yet so that the Earl's Testimony against the Duke be not prevented, prejudiced, or impeached.
The first was, That the Narrative made in the 21 Jac. But what then? Shall not the Earl be heard in his Defence against that Declaration which was designed to blast the Earl's Honour and Integrity? The other was, That all the Earl's Articles have been closed in his Breast now these two Years, contrary to his Duty, if he had known any Crime of that nature against the Duke; and now he vents it by Recrimination against the Duke, whom he knows to be a principal Witness to prove his Charge against the Earl.
This is strange; for his Majesty's Reign was scarce yet a Year old, and all this while the Earl was under a Restraint, and not permitted to come to the Parliament, which ended at Oxford; and in his Father's Reign, after the Earl had answered all the Duke's Articles against him, without any Reply, King James promised him he should be heard against the Duke, as well as he was against him, tho he lived not to make good his Promise. And why must two years pass, and this way of charging the Earl never thought of, which now must be done in all haste?
But the Lords put a full stop to this, and for these Reasons. Attorney hath accordingly delivered the Charge against him in the House, and the Earl also his Charge against the Duke. And now, if the Earl be proceeded withal by way of the Kings-Bench, these dangerous Inconveniencies will follow. The King says, That when he came first to the Crown, he found himself engaged in a War against a potent Enemy.
Who was that Enemy? Or at what time was any Declaration of any War made either against his Father or him? Which after the best Search I could ever make, I could never find any; yet this I find, that the next day after his Father's Death, he and his Favourite the Duke were so eager to make a War against the King of Spain, that a day must not be lost, but Writs must be issued out to summon a Parliament, to give Subsidies to make War against Spain.
See the second Part of the Keeper Williams' s Life, fol. If this War were for the necessary Defence of the King and his Dominions, there must be some Body that did thus offend the King and his Dominions; but who this is, the King neither says, nor can I find. For redeeming the antient Honour of this Nation. It had need, for it was never so blasted as in his Father's and his own Reign. The King's Father, to make good the Narrative which this King and Buckingham made of the Spanish Treaty, told the Parliament he was deceived by Generals, and that dolosus versatur in generalibus.
If the King would have satisfied the World how his Brother-in-law's Patrimony was taken from him by Colour of Treaties and Friendship, he should have set forth the Treaties and Friendship, and by whom, and when sought; and by whom, and when broken: but of this the King says not one word, and therefore that which he says stands for nothing. And for the Maintenance of the true Religion. Were the Ships which he and Buckingham last Year sent to subdue the Rochellers, who had never given him or his Father any Offence, for the Defence of the true Religion?
If this was not, what was it this King did for the Defence of the true Religion? And invited thereunto, and encouraged therein, by the humble Advice of both Houses of Parliament. I cannot find the Parliament, 21 Jac. But when the King enter'd into a View of his Treasure, he found how ill provided he was to proceed effectually with so great an Action.
It seems by this one Action, the King only designed the War against Spain: But why does not the King set forth the Causes why his Treasure was so ill provided? But from whence should this mature Advisement come? We do not find the Privy Council had any hand in it, and the House of Lords petitioned against it. But why was not the Duke's Cause heard? Where is this Answer to be found? Now see the Justice of this King, and how he made good his Promise in his Declaration, that he would so order his Actions, as should justify him, not only in his own Conscience, but to the whole World; for the very Day the Parliament was dissolved, he committed the Earl of Bristol Prisoner to the Tower, and left the Duke free, to pursue his ungodly Designs.
That the King must make himself sure of the Love of his own People at home, before he bid War to such a rich and mighty Nation. Nor would he have his Renown and Valour less known abroad, than his Justice at home; and France shall now be the Theatre upon which he will act it, in spight of Spain, or the Parliament and Nation of England, without whose Assistance he will act Wonders, by his own Power, and in Vindication of his own Honour: however, some Cause must be shewed by others, since the Duke concealed the true Cause.
And much to this purpose has Mr. But these were but Pretences for this War; the Cause was of another Complexion: And herein we will cite the Authority of the great Nani, who had better Means to enquire into the Causes than either Rushworth or Howel, and was not biass'd by Interest, Affection, or Flattery. The Rage hereupon of the other was inflamed to extremity, and sware, since he was forbidden to enter in a peaceable manner into France, he would make his Passage with an Army.
Here you see the Duke was under a double Obligation, of Love and Honour; and since he could not attain his End in Love, it's remarkable by what Steps he proceeded to make good his Oath and Honour of entering into France with an Army; which will be better observed if they be look'd upon in their Circumstances. It was the 16th of August , in the first Year of the King's Reign, as you may see in Rushworth, fol. But this is but a Charge of the Commons upon the Duke, and therefore no direct Proof. The Keeper hereupon craved leave to be heard, and said, It was usual in times before, that the King's Servants and Friends did deal with Counties, Cities and Boroughs where they were known, to procure a Promise for their Elections before the precise time of any insequent Parliament was published; and that the same Forecast would be good at this time, which would not speed if the Summons were divulged before they look'd about them.
The King answered, It was high time to have Subsidies granted for the War with the King of Spain, and the Fleet must go forth for that purpose this Summer. To which the Keeper replied in few words, and with so cold a Consent, that the King turned away and gave him leave to be gone, whereas the King dissolved this Parliament, and lost four Subsidies and three Fifteenths, to save the Duke, and make War upon France. But why must this be a Reason at this time of day? And why after this in King Charles 's Reign, was the English Fleet put into the Power of the French to subdue the Rochellers, and this Business of Mansfield 's not so much as taken notice of?
But this was after the Duke had seized and made Prize of the St. Peter of Newhaven; so here the Duke begins making Prize upon the French, and makes War upon them for doing so by the English. However we have here a Declaration and Reason of a War against the French, such as 'twas, tho none could be had for the War with Spain. Tho these things were settled to the Duke's Heart's Content, yet he had a Jealousy, that in his Absence the Arch-bishop of Canterbury might give the King such Counsel, as might spoil all the Glories of the Duke's Designs; and therefore to remove him not only from the Council-Table, but far enough out of the way from coming into the King's Presence, is the Design: but to put some colour upon it, it was resolved, That the King, by a special Message, should order the Arch-bishop to license Sibthorp 's Sermon under his own Hand.
The Arch-bishop at this time was sorely afflicted with the Stone, and kept his Bed; when Mr. The Bishop, instead of licensing the Sermon, made Observations upon it, how false and inconsistible the Parts of the Sermon were to one another, and how contrary to Antiquity and the Authority of the Scripture; for one part of the Sermon justified Ahab 's taking away Naboth 's Vineyard, and he desired to be satisfied about his Objections before he licensed the Sermon. Murray his reading it.
The French were so alarm'd at this Invasion, that the King offered the Duke of Rohan and the Rochellers any Terms to join against the English, which both refusing, caused both their Ruins. So that the Duke having made three false Steps, viz. The Enemy's Retreat upon the landing of the English was so hasty, that they quitted a Well about twenty Paces from the Counterscarp which supplied the Cittadel with Water; which not being possest upon the first coming of the Army, the French drew a Work about it which the English could not force, and without which Well the besieged could not have subsisted; however, the Duke resolved to take the Fort by Famine.
We have marked four false Steps the Duke made; now observe the fifth, which was the loss of the whole Army, and ruin of all the Protestant Party in France: for instead of the French joining with the English for the recovery of the Palatinate by Land, the Spaniards now join the French against the English by Sea, to relieve St. Except this little Action, yet as great in Fame as any other, the English Nation never received like Dishonour, as in this loose and unguided Conduct of this lascivious Duke in this Expedition, of whom it may be truly said, he was Mars ad Opus Veneris, Martis ad Arma Venus.
That the only way to raise Money speedily and securely, was the Via Regia by Parliament; other ways were unknown, untrodden, rough, tedious, and never succeeded well. That Religion lies nearest the Conscience of the Subject, and that there was a Jealousy of some Practices against it: and that tho the Duke of Bucks had broken the Spanish Match out of a Religious Care that the Articles demanded might endanger the State of the Reformed Religion, yet being an Actor in the French Match, as hard if not worse passed than those of Spain.
How to obviate these he leaves to the prudent Consideration of the Council, but like old Sir Charles Harboard, he wishes that the Duke might appear to be the first Adviser for calling a Parliament, so that the People may be satisfied, this Parliament should be called by the zealous Care and Industry of the Duke. Now let's see how they stood in the Church. This mercenary Army of Horse and Foot was to be taken into pay before the Excise be settled. A Jesuit and nine Priests were taken with this, and many other Papers, which were delivered to Sir John Cook, Secretary of State; the Jesuit was condemn'd, but reprieved by the King, because Sir John Cook said, The King delighted not in Blood: and afterward the nine Priests were released by special Warrant from the King; and the King in his Reasons for dissolving the Parliament, makes the House of Commons Enquiry into this Business to be an exorbitant Encroachment and Usurpation, such as was never before attempted by that House.
I am sure you now expect from me, both to know the Cause of your meeting, and what to resolve on; yet I think there is none here but knows, that common Danger is the Cause of this Parliament, and that Supply at this time is the chief End of it, so that I need but point to you what to do. But admit the Parliament had upon the Misinformation of the King and Duke, advised the King to have made War upon the King of Spain; yet since the Earl of Bristol so shamefully blasted the whole Story not a Year since in open Parliament, without any Reply; How was this Parliament obliged to have made good what that had done?
Did this Parliament, or any other, ever advise him to put the Fleet under the Command of Vice-Admiral Pennington into the French King's Power, to subdue the poor Rochellers, who never did him any wrong, to the Ruin of the Reformed Interest in France, and to be the Foundation of the French Grandeur by Sea; and then on the contrary, make War upon the French King, when he was the Aggressor?
Did ever this, or any other Parliament, advise him to take his Subjects Goods by force, without and against Law, and imprison their Persons by his Absolute Will and Pleasure, denying them the Benefit of their Habeas Corpus 's, the Birth-right of the Subject, and to continue them Prisoners during his Will, without allowing them a Trial by the Laws, whether they were guilty of any Crime or not? Or was the Commission which the King granted the next Day after the Writs for the Assembling the Parliament, to raise Monies by Imposition in the nature of Excise, to be levied throughout the Nation, for the Maintenance of the Church and State?
When his Father died he was at Peace with all the World, and it was his own Wilfulness, that without any other Counsel but that of Buckingham, he made War upon France and Spain: and let any Man read the Passages of the short time of his Reign, and judg if the imminent Ruin of the Nation were not from himself within, as well as without; and if the granting him further Supplies, would not more endanger the Nation, in carrying on his Designs in both.
Here note, Tho the King had made no Conscience of what he had done, yet he now tells the Parliament, If they shall not do their Duties in contributing what the State at this time needs, he must, in Discharge of his Conscience, use those other Means which God hath put into his hands, to save that which the Follies of particular Men may other ways hazard to lose. The King proceeds, and says, Take not this for a Threatning, for I scorn to threaten any but my Equals but an Admonition from him that both out of Nature and Duty has most Care of your Preservations and Prosperities.
This is Humano capiti cervicem jungere equinam. What a Monster does the King here make a Parliament? But if it ill becomes any Man to glory in his own Actions, it worse becomes him to glory in that which he himself had not done. So that admit the King had been so superlatively great, as to scorn all the World besides, yet it would better have become any other to have said it, than the King. Are not all the Members of every Body of Use for the Head? And does not the Head stand in need of every Member of the Body?
And did ever King, or other Man, before him, tell those from whom he expected Supply, or any other Benefit, that he scorn'd them? See 4th Institute 2. Did ever any King of England before, tho he scorn'd to threaten the Parliament, yet admonish them of their Duties, or otherwise he would use those other means than by Parliament, which God had put into his hands?
But Quorsum haec? John, and Henry III. Notwithstanding the former Abuses of this Reign, they proceeded with no Censures and Punishment of the King's evil Ministers except Dr. Now let's see, tho but in Epitome, how these things were changed, and what Returns the King made the Parliament and Nation.
The Unanimity of the Commons in the Gift, was not less than the Gift was great, being nemine contradicente; which so pleased the King, that he sent them word by Secretary Sir John Cooke, that he would deny them nothing of their Liberties which any of his Predecessors had granted them. Then several Debates arose in the House, how the Subjects should be secured against these in time to come. The House agreed to the Petition; and ordered Sir Edw. Coke, Sir Dudley Diggs, Mr.
Selden, and Mr. Littleton to carry it up to the Lords. So as his Sway in the House of Peers was much abated: Besides, the Bishops were not at this time all of a piece; for Arch-bishop Abbot urged his own Case, how he was banished from his Houses at Croydon and Lambeth, while the Duke was prosecuting his Voyage to the Isle of Rhee, and confined to a moorish Mansion-place at Ford, to kill him, and debarred from the Management of his Jurisdiction, and no Cause given for it.
And Dr. Williams gave most learned and elegant Arguments for the Petition, which you may read at large in the second Part of the History of his Life, fol. But this stuck close to him, that neither the King nor Laud ever after forgot it; which you may read fol. The Lords would not proceed to any determinate Vote, before they had heard the King's Counsel against the Petition, and the Commons Defence of it; wherein no less time was spent than six Weeks.
The Statute made in the Reign of Edward I. These Statutes were so well managed by the Commons in Defence of the Petition, that Sir Robert Heath, who was Attorney-General, and the rest of the King's Counsel pleading, tho eagerly, yet impertinently, had nothing to say materially against them, but submitted to the Judgment of the Peers. This struck such a Daunt upon the other Party, that not one of them opposed it.
But the Lords did not make any determinate Vote in it, but sent it to the Commons to advise upon. When this Addition, or Saving, came down to the Commons, Mr. And Sir Edward Coke said, This is the Multum in parvo, this is propounded to the Conclusion of our Petition: it is a Matter of great weight; and to speak plain, it will overthrow all our Petition: it trenches on all the parts of it: it flies at Loans, at the Oath, at Imprisonment, and Billeting of Soldiers: this turns all about again. Look into all Petitions of former times, they never petitioned, wherein there was a Saving of the King's Soveraignty.
I know Prerogative is part of the Law, but Soveraign Power is no Parliamentary Word: In my Opinion, it weakens Magna Charta, and all our Statutes, for they are absolute without any Saving Power; and should we now add it, we shall weaken the Foundation of the Law, and then the Building must needs fall.
I had rather, for my part, have the Prerogative acted, and I my self lie under it, than have it disputed. Sir Thomas Wentworth said, If we admit of this Addition, we leave the Subject worse than we found him; and we shall have little Thanks for our Labour when we come home. We desire no new thing; nor do we offer to trench upon his Majesty's Prerogative.
I am sure others will say it hath Reference, and so must we: how far it does exceed all Examples of former times, no Man can shew the like. Then he shews the manifold Statutes, besides Magna Charta, wherein is no such Saving. And whereas Mr.
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Speaker said, The King was our Heart, and ever shall be; but then Mr. Then he cites many Statutes wherein there are Savings, but no ways pertinent to this, which you may read at large in Rushworth' s Collections and Franklin' s Annals. And, in truth, it troubles me, I am forced to curtail this, not only in Mr.
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Selden, but other Noble Persons, by reason the Treatise would swell to a greater Bulk than I designed it. In all these Transactions the King was very uneasy; fain he would have the Money, yet was unwilling to answer the Petition. The House was aware of this, and therefore agreed the Petition before they would pass the Money-Bill. And two Days after the Secretary quickned the Business of this Supply again. Now let's see how unwillingly the King was brought to pass the Petition.
In the Debate of this Committee, some were for the Bill to rest, but Sir Edward Coke' s Reasons prevailed to the contrary: Was it ever known, said he, that General Words were a sufficient Satisfaction to particular Grievances? These gracious Messages did so work upon our Affections, that we have taken it into deep Consideration.
Gentlemen, I Am come hither to perform my Duty, I think no Man can think it long, since I have not taken so many days in answering your Petition, as you have spent Weeks in framing it. I am come hither to shew you, that as well in formal Things, as in essential, I desire to give you as much Content as in me lies. Then the Petition was read, to which the King answered, The King willeth that Right be done according to the Laws and Customs of the Realm; and that the Statutes be put in due Execution, that his Subjects may have no cause to complain of any Wrong or Oppressions, contrary to their just Rights and Liberties, to the Preservation of which he holds himself in Conscience as well obliged, as of his Prerogative.
This put the House into a fearful Consternation, whereupon the House declared, That every Member of the House is free from any undutiful Speech from the beginning of the Parliament to that day, and ordered the House to be turned into a Committee, to consider what was to be done for the Safety of the Kingdom, and that no Man go out of the House upon pain of being committed to the Tower.
But before the Speaker left the Chair, he desired leave to go forth, which the House granted. In 30 Edw. How shall we answer our Duty to God and Men? In the 4 H. What shall we do? Let us palliate no longer, if we do, God will not prosper us; I think the Duke of Bucks is the Cause of all our Miseries, and till the King be informed thereof, we shall neither go out with Honour, nor sit with Honour here; That Man is the Grievance of Grievances; let us set down the Causes of all our Disasters, and all will reflect on him.
Secondly, To tender the Liberties violated. Thirdly, To present what the House was to have dealt in. Fourthly, That that great Person, viz. It's very long, and consisted of these six Branches. Thirdly, Letters to stay Proceedings against them. The not guarding the narrow Seas; whereby his Majesty has almost lost the Regality.
Of all which Evil and Dangers, the principal Cause is the Duke of Buckingham, his excessive Power, and Abuse of that Power; and therefore humbly submit it to his Majesty's Wisdom, whether it can be safe for himself and Kingdom, that so great Power should be trusted in the hands of any one Subject whatsoever. Now let's see the next, and whether the Commons deserved such a Censure as the King made upon them at the Prorogation of the Parliament.